Read Chapter 8 from:
Esoteric Anatomy: The Body as Consciousness
by Bruce Burger, MA
We invite you to contemplate an ancient vision of the universe as a living, breathing, conscious Being . . .
and the ubiquitous Golden Spiral as the mathematical expression of the life breath of a living universe.
The Golden Spiral:
a Key To Understanding Energy in Nature
All creation is the interweaving of cycles. From Galactic manifestation to subatomic waves, the universe is a vast spectrum of cycles. The cycles of birth and death, summer and winter, day and night, in-breath and out-breath weave the fabric of life. The ancient rishis (Yogi's who purified their body/minds and directly experienced the fundamental forces of creation) experienced the underlying unity of all cycles as the breath of Brahma and the ubiquitous periodicity of the universe as the rhythm of the life breath of a single harmonious Living Being.
All bodies in nature or organized around the proportional harmonics
of the rhythms of the Earth's breath.
There is a profound body of scientific evidence that points to the fact that the universe is a single harmonious system. A key to understanding this unity is found in an aspect of natural law known variously as the “Divine Proportion,” “Golden Section,” “Golden Ratio,” or Golden Spiral.”
Bruce Rawles explains:
The Divine Proportion was closely studied by the Greek sculptor, Phidias, hence, it was given the name Phi. Also known as the Golden Mean, the Magic Ratio, the Fibonacci Series, etc., Phi can be found throughout the universe; from the spirals of galaxies to the spiral of a Nautilus seashell; from the harmony of music to the beauty in art. A botanist will find it in the growth patterns of flowers and plants, while the zoologist sees it in the breeding of rabbits. The entomologist views it in the genealogy of a bee, and the physicist observes it in the behavior of light and atoms. A Wall Street analyst finds it in the rising and falling patterns of a market, the mathematician in the examination of the pentagram. . . . The ancient Egyptians used it in the construction of the great pyramids and in the design of hieroglyphs found on tomb walls . . . . Plato in his Timaeus considered it the most binding of all mathematical relations and makes it the key to the physics of the cosmos.1
The Golden Spiral can be described mathematically through a principle known in the West as the Fibonacci progression which is named after an Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci da Pisa. Fibonacci, the father of western mathematics, learned this principle from traders of the Aryan civilizations of Asia. The Fibonacci progression is a mathematical sequence that is produced by starting with 1 and adding the last two numbers in the progression to arrive at the next. The Fibonacci sequence begins: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, . . . Each number is the sum of the previous two numbers.
The Fibonacci numbers, and especially ratios of two successive Fibonacci numbers, show up extensively in nature. For example, the petals of a Monterey pine cone are arranged in spirals crossing in both directions: eight spirals in one direction and thirteen in the other. Similar patterns arise in the seeds of sunflowers and in other plants whose leaves grow in a spiral around a central stem; each successive leaf may be on the opposite side (1/2 way around) or may be 2/3 of the way around, or 3/5, etc.2
The ratio of any two successive Fibonacci numbers from three on is about 1:1.618. This ratio occurs ubiquitously throughout nature, in logarithmic spirals that underlie the process of growth.
The Golden Spiral describes the radiation of energy from a center. In all natural processes energy radiates from a center in the logarithmic proportions of the Golden Spiral. One can witness the Golden Spiral in the curve of an elephant’s tusk, the horns of wild sheep, the curve of a canary’s claw, the spiral in a pineapple or daisy. The spiral of your fingerprint or curl in your eye lash follow the Divine Proportion. The planets of our solar system radiate from our Sun, and galaxies manifest following the rhythms of the Golden Spiral. The Fibonacci progression describes the law that underlies the radiation of energy in nature. “It governs, for example, the laws involved with the multiple reflections of light through mirrors, as well as the rhythmic laws of gains and losses in the radiation of energy.”3
We find the same proportional harmonics in the average distance
of the planets from the sun as the chambers of a nautilus.
The breath of Brahma sustains the harmony of the Golden Spiral. The source of all vibration is the word of God. The song of God animates the cosmic dance of Shiva and Shakti, centrifugal and centripetal currents that undulate through every spiraling atom of creation The vibration of these spiraling yang and yin currents weaves the fabric of creation. David Tame in his valuable book, The Secret Power of Music, in a section titled “The vocal range of the one Singer,” points out the unity of the electromagnetic spectrum:
Not only “solid” matter but all forms of energy, are composed of waves: which is to say, vibrations. All of the different kinds of electromagnetic energy—including radio waves, heat, X rays, cosmic rays, visible light, infra-red, and ultraviolet—are composed of wave like or vibratory activity, these vibrations traveling through the universe at 186,000 miles per second. The only difference between each of these phenomena is their frequency of vibration or wavelength. Each merges into the other at a certain wavelength: which obviously means, when one gets down to it, they are each one and the same thing.4
All vibration is aligned with the harmony of the electromagnetic spectrum. The mathematics that describe the radiation of energy throughout the vast spectrum of vibration of the universe is the Golden Spiral. Every level of macrocosm and microcosm of vibration is attuned to the harmony of the one singer.
(Picture this spiral three-dimensionally as a spiraling vortex, undulating in both directions, centrifugally, and centripetally simultaneously at the speed of life.)7
The ancient rishis (seers) purified their bodies and concentrated their minds. They communed with the intelligence of the cosmic being through prayer and devotion. They actualized micro clairvoyant powers (siddhi) in which they directly experienced the fundamental forces of creation. They witnessed “spirals, within, spirals, within spirals . . . ” as they described the vibratory nature of energy. They described the gunas, the fundamental modes of nature, which they likened to a rope spun of three threads. Centrifugal and centripetal spiraling around an unchanging core. Spiraling through all vibration are a balance of centrifugal and centripetal currents fractally emanating from an infinite core. These forces radiate from the core, universally, in the proportional harmonics defined by the Golden Spiral.5
Like wheels within wheels, fields undulate within fields in the universal
electromagnetic process of centrifugal and centripetal forces.
All energy in creation vibrates as a Logarithmic Spiral.6
Undulating through every spiral of periodicity in creation is the profound balance of the universal breath of ascending and descending currents of yang and yin, expansion and contraction, Fire and Water.
Energy fields in nature are organized following the proportional harmonics of the Golden Spiral
Understanding this undulating “dance of Shiva” is a key to the vibratory basis of creation. The infinity archetype (∞ ) embodies the key to this universal process in which balanced opposites sustain a unity. In this case the opposites are the balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces whose logarithmic undulations fractally weave the fabric of creation. Following the harmonic proportions defined by the Golden Spiral, the opposite undulating forces weave a pattern of seven intervals within eight phases. Esoterically this is called The Law of Seven.
The Cosmic Octave: The Law of Seven
On every level of macrocosm and microcosm, vibration spirals as the cosmic octave. An octave describes a process with eight steps and seven intervals. Seven is a fundamental level of organization in the universe. The seven whole notes of the tones of the musical scale are a natural measure of the harmony of universal law. The musical octave is so “natural” that it defines the proportional distances between the planets in the solar system! The seven colors of the rainbow define the spectrum of light.
The physicist Hermann von Helmholtz devised a correspondence between the visible spectrum and the musical scale.8
Musical Notes Colors
F, F# Violet
E Indiago Blue
D# Cyanogen Blue
D Greenish Blue
G#, A Red
Nature herself also indicates the close link between sound and light, the solar spectrum of colors displaying a number of the properties of tones. The resemblance is just as though the one phenomenon—light—were a higher state of the other. Just as audible tone organizes itself naturally into the seven notes of the diatonic scale, so too does the visible solar spectrum form the seven colors of the rainbow.9In Sanskrit the letters of the alphabet that reflect the spectrum of vibration underlying creation are called varnas, or colors. Sanskrit letters varnas coordinate with universal basic principles that build and unfold creation.
Out of the one white light radiate the solar spectrum of the seven colors of the rainbow. Tradition holds that all of the universe is formed by and thus mirrors the seven major (and five minor) cosmic tones.
All growth in nature is ruled by the lunar cycle. “From one cell to two there is a cycle of change in eight phases with seven intervals, analogous to the musical octave, or the spectrum of light . . . The lunar month, a perfect example of graduated phases within a continuous process, is dominated by seven and its multiples.”10 The twenty-eight days of the lunar cycle, of the two fortnights of the waxing and waning Moon, map a cycle of four seven-day cycles and twenty-eight graduated steps that underlie all biological processes. The cycle spiraling through the lunar month of four-times-seven is fundamental to all growth. Cells divide in an octavian process.
The planets spiral out from the nucleus of the solar system following what in astronomy is called Bodes law, in which the distance between the planets follows the Fibonacci progression. The planets of the solar system follow the proportional harmonics of the Golden Spiral and parallel our earthly musical scale. The seven days of the week is a “natural process” of the rhythms of the cosmos. Sun-day, Moon-day, Mars-day, Mercur-day, Thors-day (Jupiter), Fri-day (Venus), and Saturn-day reflect the same cosmic octave.
The “menorah” that was the centerpiece of the Tabernacle in the wilderness and of the first and second Temples in Jerusalem had seven branches.
The candelabra of seven lights, of the ancient Israelites offers a model of the universe. The Sun is represented by the center light, Mars and Venus, Mercury and Earth, Saturn and Jupiter are represented in the polarity of candles on each side.
Seven is a fundamental number in nature. There are seven rows of stable elements in the periodic table of the elements, which is understood to be the scientific basis of matter. Indeed in Leadbetter’s Occult Chemistry, the periodic table is portrayed as a Golden Spiral. There are seven types of crystal systems—cubic, rhombohedral, hexagonal, triclinic, monoclinic, trigonal, and orthorhombic—the crystallization within the mineral kingdom of the seven elemental harmonics of creation. There are seven major hormonal glands in the human body and seven ventricles or cavities of the skull.11
" Looking down from above, from the perspective of the nucleus of our energy system the Sun, we see that the distribution of leaves marking the growth of plants follows the spiraling Fibonacci progression: 3 leaves in 5 turns, 5 leaves in 8 turns."
In Sacred Geometry, Robert Lawler asserts:
“Numerous studies document the ubiquity of the Golden Ratio and the Fibonacci Series, which describe the rhythmic laws of the gains and losses in the radiation of energy.”13 For example, Professor Amstutz of the Mineralogical Institute at the University of Heidelberg maintains: “Matter’s latticed waves are spaced at intervals corresponding to the frets on a harp or guitar with analogous sequences of overtones arising from each fundamental. The science of musical harmony is in these terms practically identical with the science of crystals.”14 Wilfried Krü ger, in his book Das Universium Singt (The Universe Sings) combines a knowledge of musical theory and atomic physics. He demonstrates that the structure of atoms contain ratios and numbers that parallel the harmonious principles of music. Through a wealth of highly detailed and painstakingly prepared notes and diagrams he demonstrates that it is impossible for chance alone to account for the consistently musical patterns of the song of the universe.15
The ancient cultures understood the profound harmony of the universe. Their science was based on this fundamental aspect of universal law. Universally, energy emanates from a center in a “step-down” process that follows the Golden Spiral of the Divine Proportion. Seven fields of force radiate from a center, in a quantum step-down of graduated phases, within a continuous process. The first two steps are the inner harmonics of the causal and mental plane; the next five steps are the elemental harmonics of resonance that underlie matter: Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. The Law of Seven is a fundamental principle in the theomorphic perspective.
Universally, energy currents spiral in an octave of eight nodes that sustain seven steps. The seven chakras where ida and pingala undulate around sushumna personify this cosmic process.
"Theomorphic" stepdown of energy. All forms in Nature embody the process of creation!
The Golden Ratio and the logarithmic succession of the Fibonacci progression are fundamental expressions of universal law. The Golden Spiral is a key to looking beyond the physical to the unified field that is the substratum underlying manifestation. All physical phenomena exist in alignment with this underlying field. The fundamental features, structure, and function of all organisms are reflections of the fact that they are subsystems within the larger energy systems of nature and the cosmos from which they derive their energy and being.
Elemental Harmonics of Resonance
Throughout all creation there is a step-down in vibration from the inner spiritual essence of the Life Field outward to a material manifestation. This step-down occurs through phases that reflect the proportional harmonics defined by the Golden Spiral.
Every level of macrocosm and microcosm reflects the polarity dynamic of energy radiating outward from a nucleus and being received again into that neutral center. Fields of force are organized in a quantum process of keynotes of entrainment. Thus, in the cosmology of the ancients we picture quantum zones of force emanating from the center of the universal energy field, each zone representing a specific resonant frequency of the step-down from Spirit into materiality.
Golden Spiral: Life breath of a living universe . . .
The ancient wisdom describes these fields of resonance emanating from the center as elements. The elements are the vibratory archetypes of Cosmic Intelligence that underlie creation. Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. These five patterns of vibration are at the core of the sciences of the ancients. Dr. Stone writes: “Patterns are mind energy fields. [underlined in the original] Each type of energy has a vibratory speed and wave length which determines its function and affinity to other similar units of energy functioning in the body, or outside in the cosmos."17 They are the fundamental resonances that are the inner vibrational basis of all phenomena. The elemental harmonics are understood as four phases of radiation (Air, Fire, Water, and Earth) from one center (Ether). Each of the elements represents a progressively denser, more material radiation of a single force, a harmonic of the underlying singular harmony. The elements are archetypal harmonics corresponding to the phases of materialization in the Polarity Evolutionary Cycle.
Cross section of logarithmic spiral pictured above.
Ether + Air sustain Air
Ether + Air + Fire sustain Fire Ether +Air + Fire sustain Water
Ether +Air + Fire + Water sustain Earth
Energy Fields radiate from a center and step-down in quantum fashion from higher to lower rates of vibration from the core to the periphery. The radiation of energy fields is universally ruled by the Golden Spiral.
Like wheels within wheels, these whirling vortices of force emanate from the center of every energy field in a quantum fashion of discrete zones of resonance that provide the step-down mechanism from Spirit to matter. The Etheric center radiates a series of fields in a quantum step-down mechanism through which spirit crystallizes into matter. The elements represent progressive stages in the cycle of movement of this energy from Spirit into matter. They form the outward, involutionary cycle from within to without, from above to below, from Ether to Earth, from subtle Spirit to the crystallization of consciousness into matter. This movement then becomes an inward-moving evolutionary cycle from below to above and from without to within, as energy cycles back through matter to Spirit.
In the Tantric darsan (a vision of God) nature (prakriti) is differentiated into five forms of motion. Ether (Akasa) fills space with the “Hairs of Shiva,” nonobstructive motion radiating lines of force in all directions, sustaining the space in which the other forces operate. Air (Vayu) is a transverse motion and the source of locomotion in space (from the sanskrit root Va, “to move”). Fire (Tejas) is an upward motion giving rise to expansion. Water (Apas) is a downward motion giving rise to contraction. Earth (Prithivi) is a motion which produces cohesion and obstruction, the opposite of the nonobstructive Ether.18
All vibration is entrained, through sympathetic vibration, with the resonance of these universal fields of force. All solidity, regardless of the phenomenon, resonates with the Earth harmonic; all fluidity with Water; all heat with Fire; all movement with Air; and all space with Ether.
The ancient seers articulated a distinction between the universal elements prior to manifestation which they called “subtle elements” and the “gross” pentamirus combination of the elements that sustained manifestation. Thus the subtle tanmatras, or essences, combining and recombining, produce the five gross elements of the external universe the Mahabhutas or Panchabhautikas.
It is important to remember that this is a sacred model of creation. While a scientific perspective would hold that “mythology” points to a realm that is less than “real,” sacred “mythology” asserts a transcendental dimension that is more than “real.” The elements are not things . . . but are Primordial Being. The elements are aspects of the Divine Logos and are the root archetypes out of which Cosmic Intelligence manifests creation.
The Ether Element
The Ether Elemental Harmonic of Resonance
The center of the spiral of every energy field resonates with the neutral, Etheric harmonic. Ether is the first elemental resonance to evolve from the oneness of universal intelligence (Mahat). Ether is often referred to as the element of "space": “The characteristic of the Ether element is all-pervasiveness. It provides the space in that further creation takes place.”19 It provides the space which limits and contains the energy field. “Air is completely mobile, whereas Ether is completely inert. Air always wants to move and expand; Ether contains it.”20 Ether relates to the sonic, vibrational dimension of cosmic intelligence, which is the medium of creation. The overall space of the body, the sonic environments of the body cavities, the organ of hearing and sounds are formed from the space element.21
The classical glyph for Ether in the West is a circle. The circle defines a space. Ether defines the fields of the body. Manifestation is an appearance in an empty space within the infinite fullness, the plenum of cosmic being. Ether holds this space. The whirling atoms of manifestation sustain a vortex of emptiness. “Ultimately the seemingly solid body is composed of subatomic particles and empty space. What is more, even the subatomic particles have no real solidity; the existence span of one of them is much less than a trillionth of a second. Particles continuously arise and vanish passing into and out of existence.”22 Creation is a play of unconsciousness within the omniscient consciousness of cosmic Being.
Ether is the matrix through which thought forms are brought into etheric patterns which then crystallize into physical expression. Ether resonates with prana, the life breath of the cosmos and sonic medium of the Divine will to create. Ether is the principle in consciousness that draws from the universal medium of prana, cosmic breath, to project into physicality the intelligent patterns that sustain matter. The other elements radiate outward from within this all-pervasive subtle inner medium as they step-down into more and more solid matter. The potency of the emanation drops as the energy moves away from the center and steps down from Spirit to matter. The etheric body is a high vibrational matrix which steps energy down from the subtle universal elements into materiality. Ether is the womb through which the subtle inner quintessence of the universal elements combine into the pentamirus combination of the five gross elements which sustains matter.23
Air rules the pentamorous
interplay of the elements.
The Air Element
The Air Elemental Harmonic of Resonance
The potency of the Etheric core sustains the field of the Air elemental harmonic. In Air we move from the “o” of oneness into the polarity of the in- and out-breaths, the positive and negative fields. S. Radhakrishnan, explains: “Vibration by itself cannot create forms unless it meets with obstruction. The interaction of vibrations is possible in air.”24
All movement in nature is ruled by Air. All energy in manifestation moves in a double helix of centrifugal and centripetal orbs pulsating from a center in a whirling vortex of a fountain spray of manifestation. On the atomic level fields are a balance of proton and electron, positive and negative charges, centrifugal and centripetal vortices. The undulating interference pattern of these spirals is the basis of all vibration/movement in nature. All movement takes place within a balance of wholeness as an expression of universal law. Air rules all movement in manifestation as an expression of universal law. Air rules the gestalt of the pentamirus combination of the elements.
Air rules the relationship between the periphery of the body and the core, entraining the energy field with the infinite wholeness at the core. Thus air fills space with the harmony of universal law. In the Chinese cosmology the Air element is known as Metal, pointing to the strength of Universal law. Air is understood as the servant of Fire and Water, as Air always holds a balance of wholeness between the centrifugal and centripetal vortices, the periphery and the core.
Air radiates from the central axis
to unite the core and the periphery
The glyph for Air is the equal sign (=), the double parallel lines representing Fire/Heaven and Water/Earth in balance. Air rules the East/West currents in the body which define the body from side to side and balance the periphery with the core. It is the bridge between the unified field and the polarity of involution/evolution. Air is the physical carrier of the prana, the universal life breath, in its dual polarity.
In the Pythagorean system the pentagram symbolizes the Air humor. The pentagram embodies the pentamirus relationship amongst the gross elements and the reciprocity of the play of the elements in wholeness. The pentagram is the crystallized expression of the relationship amongst the elements. It also represents the reciprocity between Fire and Water, Air and Earth which vibrate in polarity relationships. The resonance of the elements are harmonious relationships within wholeness. The resonance of each element takes place within the profound pentamirus balance of these relationships. The pentagram is the crystallized expression of a spectrum of elemental attunement that universally undulates through every spiraling cycle of vibration.
In the Air element there is a lengthening of the arc of vibration from the stillness of the supraphysical unified field of space into the elliptical orbit (the cosmic egg) which characterizes all phenomena. The Air resonance is sattvic (sat means “absolute being”), receptive to the Absolute, the Unitive Field. In Air, both fields of force, centrifugal and centripetal, are equal and in a dynamic balance, and thus sustain a neutral field that resonates with the source. The parallel lines of the astrological glyphs for Air (C, G, K) point to the dynamic energy fields of positive and negative whose interference pattern underlies all vibration in nature. Air sustains the fulcrum, the bindu around which Fire and Water emanate. Air is the bridge between the infinite sky and the finite world, the unity of space and diversity of time.
We can understand Air by contemplating Spring, the season which is Air-predominant. In Spring the northern hemisphere of the Earth moves into resonance with the centrifugal spiral of Spirit. All forms that resonate with life are entrained through sympathetic vibration with this spiraling of life force from the “center.” Through sympathetic vibration with the omnipresent center, life springs out of the “emptiness” of space into manifestation in time.
Air sustains the spiraling transverse motion between the fields of Ether and Earth. In “re-spir-ation” the force of the Air element re-spires the more material elements through its potent inner resonance of attunement with the Life Field. All movement, breath, and the organ of touch and physical sensation are formed from the "wind" element Air. The essence of Air is movement as an expression of living cosmic intelligence.
The Fire Element
Fire radiates from the "Hara" deep in the pelvis.
The Fire Elemental Harmonic of Resonance
The radiation from the nucleus of the Sun predominates in the involutionary currents which rule the step-down from Spirit to matter of the positive phase. As an oscillating wave moves through the spiral, there is a point where the spiral’s fields of force sustain an arc in harmony with the solar influence—the arc of radiance. This is the Fire phase, where the positive, centrifugal, ascending fields come into entrainment. The Fire arc predominates, and the field is influenced by the universal positive harmonic. Fire is a radiation of the field of force of the Sun. It is a positive resonance in harmony with the universal electric harmonic of solar force. The classical alchemical glyph for Fire ( ∆ ) captures its essence as a radiation of the sun’s field of force, as Fire always burns upward in tune with its source. The combined radiance of Ether and Air sustains the ring of Fire. Warmth, clear coloration, the organ of sight, and form are formed from the Fire element.
The Water Element
The Water Elemental Harmonic of Resonance
As the wave undulates through the spiral, there is a phase that resonates with and is energized by the lunar harmonic of influence. This phase is Water-predominant, and the arc is centripetal, descending, magnetic and attuned with the moon’s influence, which sustains fluidity and form. The combined potency of Ether, Air, and Fire sustain the resonant frequency of the field of Water.
Water gives birth to form. The glyph for Water is a downward-pointing triangle ( ). Water always sinks downward. This triangle is the receptacle of Spirit as the field of force drops in vibration to assume substantial solidity in this more material fluid phase of the cycle. Water and Earth are centripetal fields of force.
The Earth Element
The Earth Elemental Harmonic of Resonance
The potency of all four inner fields of force sustain the gross Earth elemental resonant frequency. This next phase in the process of materialization is one that becomes dominated by the Earth’s energy field, which sustains crystallization and elimination. At Earth the surface tension and resistance at the periphery of the energy field sustain a boundary. Earth is a most material expression of currents emanating from the nucleus. The glyph for Earth is the square ( p) In Earth we have the crystallization of the holomovement of Ether and the play of the five forces, “the squaring of the circle.” The pull of gravity materializes these forces.
Dr. Stone writes: "Energy is a living thing when approached from the Center flowing outward as currents and circuits. On the circumference it loses these qualities and becomes a sedimentation of energy whirls known as matter, through surface resistance and tension.
Qualitie Of The Elements
Fruit, Nuts, Seeds
Root Vegies, Tubers
Snakelike, Fast-irregular, Feeble-faint, Moving from place to place
Froglike, Jumpy-regular, High Volume, Like beating drum
Full-bounding, Rolling-wavelike, Slow, Moderate full volume
At the Earth phase of resonance, the vibrations crystallize into matter and gradually lose their ability to resonate with the universal spiral of vibration. The energy field falls out of harmony with the universal keynote that sustains life. It drops to a linear energy field which resists the spiraling of vibration crystallizing into form. Eventually it breaks down, unable to reflect and draw sustenance from the universal harmonies. This is the “dust” of the Earth phase of the cycle. At this phase, elimination and decay take place, resistance is released, and the life potency is pulled back to the center by the centripetal return current of the evolutionary cycle, to step back up to Ether. All matter, by its nature, eventually crumbles to dust, releasing tentrainment with Spirit to return to its source to continue in the eternal cycle of evolution.
Gravity is the Earth's "prana," flowing from Heaven to Earth. The atmo-sphere of the Earth can be understood in terms of spheres of force emanating from the nucleus of the Earth, representing the centripetal return current of the evolutionary cycle. Dr. Stone called these crystalline emanations of force from the Earth “Gravity Lines.”
Nepalese Chakra Diagram
The Four Directions
All life undulates through the spiraling helix of creation in a cycle of phases of resonance: Air, from above to below; Fire, from within to without, Water, from without to within; and Earth, from below to above. All vibration entrains with the four primordial archetypes of the four directions of force.
The Combinations Of the Elemental Patterns of Vibration Manifest the Body/Mind
Creation is woven of the spectrum of vibration. The vibrational gestalt of the five elements underlies tissue and processes of the body. In bold are the qualities which result when an element predominates in the body/mind: Ether’s essence of space rules grief, Air’s quality of movement rules speed, Fire’s directed energy rules anger, Water’s life-giving essence underlies semen/ovum. The essence of the Earth element is the solidity of bones.
The elements are the vibrational warp and woof weaving the resonant fabric of the body. Dr. Yeshi Dhondhen, physician of the Dalai Lama, summarizes the relationship between the keynotes of the elements and the harmonics of vibration that underlie the body:
The sense consciousness arise from the mind. The flesh, bones, organ of smell and odors are formed from the earth element. The blood, organs of taste, and liquids in the body arise from the water element. The warmth clear coloration, the organ of sight are formed from the fire element. The breath, organ of touch and physical sensations are formed from the wind element. The cavities in the body, the organ of hearing and sounds are formed from the space element.26
The step-down takes place through the interaction of two poles—the Sun and the Earth. Life on Earth is a subsystem of the cosmic life of the solar system. The elements are phases of resonance reflecting the interaction of these two fields of force in the evolution of the universe. Creation takes place in an essentially "neutral field" between these two poles. This neutral ground is the medium of creative consciousness and the life processes. The Earth emanates an energy field. We refer to this field as the atmosphere of the Earth. A series of spheres of energy emanates from the nucleus of the Earth field. All growth on Earth aligns itself with the harmonics of these spheres of resonance. The word “atmosphere” comes from the Greek atmos meaning “breath.” Life exists in the spheres of breath, the respiration of the Earth as a living being.
The Atmo-Spheres of the Earth
The five spheres of emanation from the Earth represent the evolutionary return currents of the circulation of energy between the nucleus of our solar system, the Sun, and our “chakra” in that system, the Earth. The Earth emanates the spheres or fields of force that are fundamental to the organization of life. The surface of the Earth is itself Earth-predominant. Foods that resonate with the Earth element and are grounding grow within this sphere of resonance.
The next emanation is Water-predominant, extending two feet above the Earth. Foods that grow in this Water-predominant sphere are cooling and cleansing, for example, vegetables and melons. The next sphere of resonance is Fire-predominant, focused at the level of an adult’s solar plexus. This zone is where the warming, building grains grow. Above this are the spheres of Air and Ether, where more extreme foods such as fruits (very expanding) and nuts (very concentrated) grow. All life on Earth takes place as a subsystem within the spheres of force emanating from the Earth, interacting as subsystems of the solar forces. The evolutionary return currents rule structure and predominate in the musculature and skeletal systems of the body.
Growth on Earth aligns with the elemental harmonics of resonance,
the “atmo-spheres” sustained by the interaction of the energy fields of the Sun and Earth.
The body grows within the energy field of nature. The body is aligned with the proportional harmonics of the atmo-spheres of resonance of the Earth’s energy field.
The Body Personifies the Evolutionary Process
In the Sanatana Dharma the world is a moment-to-moment creation of the Cosmic Being (Spirit, Sat Purusha). Spirit is omnipresent as unchanging being. Nature is always changing, becoming, evolving. Nature is the sacred, moment-to-moment creation of Spirit. Nature is an emanation of Spirit, sustained by Spirit’s animating force. Spirit is the One Life of cosmic intelligence which vivifies nature. Nature crumbles into decay and dust without the animating force of the Soul. The quintessence of the ancient wisdom is the realization of the mystery of eternal life and the sacredness of all creation as a moment-to-moment emanation of the presence of The One Life.
In the ancient wisdom the medium of creation is the Word of God. Everything in creation is understood as a microcosm of the cosmic breath of sacred sound vibration. By “sacred sound” the ancients were honoring the profound mystery of cosmic intelligence which is at the heart of all becoming. The creative intelligence of Brahma is omnipresent. All creation steps-down from the pranava, the unified field of the song of the cosmos, into the cycles of evolution. As transpersonal theorist Ken Wilber makes clear "God" as consciousness, Satchitananda (being-consciousness-bliss), is wholly present as every level of creation: “God is the very stuff, the actual essence, of each and every stage/level. God is not the highest level, nor a different level itself, but the reality of all levels.”28
The transpersonal perspective of the sacredness and unity of all life is the constant theme of the cosmology of the ancients. The chakras are the step-down mechanism from the unitive field of cosmic intelligence into its temporal channels of expression.
The Chakras in our body are a microcosm of the Solar System.
The lower chakras whose colors are red, orange, and yellow are ruled by Jupiter, Brihaspati the Guru. His unmitigated faith, fire, and blessings illuminate the evolutionary process.29
The whole Vedic system is very comprehensive. It begins with the sound current or word of God as the first emanation. This forms the central core and axis of the Universe and of the cerebrospinal nervous system of the human body, and distributes the energy impulses upon the central axis as the motive power of the finer energies in man, from within outward, as the Life flows. First it is the psychic wireless energy and then precipitates into the physical life energy and currents.30
The body is understood as fields of resonance emanating from a central ultrasonic core. Dr. Stone writes: “The central core is the ultrasonic energy current of the Soul. It is the primary energy which builds and sustains all others. It flows through the sixth ventricle of the brain and spinal chord . . . ”31 This core (sushumna) is located anatomically within the central canal of the spinal cord and resonates with "The Eternal Sound Current," the highest vibrational essence of Atman/Brahman, the unified field of cosmic intelligence.32 In Sanskrit the spine is called the Brahmadanda, the “stick of Brahma.”33 "The ultrasonic core is the central pathway of motion along which the five primary centers are created, located anatomically within the central canal of the spinal chord. Two intertwining currents of pranic energy (ida and pingala), each a polarized opposite of the other, pursue a double-helical pathway along this core."34 Each point where the two intertwining currents intersect is a pulsating orb of force—a chakra (circle, whirl). Chakras are centrifugal and centripetal whirling vortices of force radiating from their ultrasonic core. The chakras are the primary centers of the pranas—the life currents- —that sustain the body.
The chakras are the step-down mechanism from the ultrasonic core into the lower vibratory fields of the body. Reporting on clairvoyant research, Theosophist Charles Leadbeater writes:
The chakras or force centers are points of connection at which energy flows from one vehicle or body of a man to another...they show themselves as saucer-like depressions or vortices...as small circles about two inches in diameter... in the ordinary man . . . when awakened . . . they are seen as blazing . . . whirlpools . . . resembling miniature suns. All these wheels are perpetually rotating, and into the hub or open mouth of each, a force from the higher world is flowing . . .35Each chakra is the nucleus of an elemental energy field. The five chakras are located anatomically within the central canal of the spinal chord: Ether in the center of the throat, Air behind the heart, Fire between the second and third lumbar vertebra, Water at the lumbosacral junction, and Earth at the sacrococcygeal junction.
Leadbeater shares his clairvoyant vision of the subtle body explaining:
Though the mouth of the flower-like bell of the chakra is on the surface of the etheric body, the stem of the trumpet like-blossom always springs from a center in the spinal chord...In each case an etheric stem, usually curving downwards, connects the spine with the external chakra. As the stems of all the chakras thus start from the spinal chord, this force naturally flows down these stems into the flower-bells, where it meets the incoming stream of divine life, and the pressure set up by that encounter causes the radiation of the mingled forces horizontally along the spokes of the chakra.36
The streams of primary life force of the involutionary centrifugal currents and the serpent power of the centripetal evolutionary currents commingle in an undulatory circular motion. Leadbeater explains:
The wave lengths are infinitesimal, and probably thousands of them are included within one of the undulations. As the forces rush around in the vortex, these oscillations of different sizes, crossing one another in this basket-work fashion, produce the flower like form . . . of wavy iridescent glass . . . of shimmering . . . petals . . . like mother of pearl.37
Ten long line currents of prana emanate from the chakras.38
Pranic currents emanate from the chakras to sustain the force fields of energy which our senses perceive as the physical body. While prana is usually translated as “lifeforce,” it is useful to point out that by prana we mean fields of living cosmic intelligence—not merely force or energy, not merely information or organization, but the consciousness of the omnipresent Spirit. Sir John Woodroffe writes:
Prana is Paramatma, Antaratma, that is The Supreme Being, beyond and in bodies as their Controller and Director . . . Another form of the mental principle is Prana or Life. Though not specifically called mind, it is nevertheless the aspect of mind which is wholly immersed in matter as the directing consciousness of the material energies of the body.39 The cosmic Prana which pervades and vitalizes all breathing creatures (Prani) is the Brahman . . . the source of the individual and collective life. Breathing is a microcosmic manifestation of the Macrocosmic Rhythm to which the whole universe moves.40
The “energy” of the body is a microcosm of Aum, the Sacred Word.
Prana is the life of a living universe, a form of divine energy that animates all living things. “Prana is a guiding, directing, and to such extent intelligent principle, which organizes matter into living forms with increasing degree of freedom and greater display of consciousness.”41 Prana links the living universal being and its subsystem, the living body. Five pranas (from pra, “forth,” and an, “to breathe”)42 are the life currents which vivify the body to sustain the life of the body. The spiraling, prana’s currents undulate through five phases of resonance: in-breath, out-breath, diffused breath, up-breath, middle-breath. 43
Prana is the vehicle of five stages of attunement to the cosmic forces and is the general term for “breath,” in or out. Apana is the downward stage in the cycle of the breath. Vyana is the bond of union of prana and apana. It is the breathe that sustains life when there is neither inspiration nor expiration. Samana is common to both inspiration and expiration. Udana leads the Soul in deep sleep to the central Reality or conducts the Soul from the body at death.44 Prana the Sun-breath, is the supreme breath, the pure life force. It controls breathing and enables us to draw in Universal Life breath. Udana is an upward breath that links the physical to the spiritual. Vyana rules circulation. It keeps the body in shape and resists the forces of disintegration. Samana controls digestion and assimilation and promotes equilibrium. Apana is the downward and expelling force which rules elimination.45
The Five-fold Phases of Prana: The Vital Airs46
Appropriation of Universal Life
forces from the cosmos.
Inward movement, works ideo-motor-verbal
processes and respiration
Uplifting, connects spiritual and material. Uplifts spirit at death.
Rules utterance, singing.
Upwards movement, for example, erect posture
Vyana Diffused breath
Distribution, Circulation of life force.
Rules separation and disintegration of cosmic intelligence to resist entropy. Extension, that holds space. contraction, and flexion of muscles, stores energy.
Union of Prana and Apana
Life force/blue print
Separates things: rules assimilation, equalizing digestion, and equilibrium of body breath chemistry and metabolism.Maintains organic life.
Kindles bodily fire, digestion, and assimilation
Excretory, rejection, casts out waste.
Lower body death force.
Pulls against prana.
All vibration spirals through five phases of cosmic attunement. The breath is a microcosm of this universal holomovement.
Breath and the Elements47
In nose out nose
In nose out mouth
In mouth out nose
In mouth out mouth
Dr. Stone writes:
The life energy-Prana is a step-down current from the Eternal Sound Current which supports all living things. The origin of life is in the pattern-field of the mental plane where it splits into potential sensory and motor currents. Its action is in the etheric field (akasha), and its center is that thousand rayed whirling disk of energy that supports all visible creation. In the body the heart chakra is the microcosmic life center which draws energy from within its center as the individualized life Prana. Externally the Sun is the source of Prana and life. In combustible matter it is stored as heat units.48
The index finger of the left hand and the second toe of the left foot deal with the heart center and the bulk of the ‘Pranic’ life force in circulation.49 Prana stimulates the fine nerve endings in the Schneiderian Membrane in the nose, on each side. These impulses are carried to the hemisphere of the brain, on each side . . . [the] air has a positive or negative function in its flow to the brain.50 Prana inlet is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, in conjunction with the parasympathetic function. The artery rules in the tissues because it brings the positive pole or life energy or ‘Prana’ to all parts of the body. . . Mind and ‘Prana’ ARE TWINS IN FUNCTION, even as ‘Prana' vital force needs oxygen as a stepped down energy conveyor in order to function in matter, so does mind need ‘Prana’ as an energy agent in order to connect with the body and the universal supplies of the four elements . . . 51
Cosmic intelligence manifests the body to experience the world. Five pranic currents emanate from the chakras as centrifugal motor fields. These rule the operation of the five senses. Five centripetal, sensory currents rule the body’s building and maintenance processes, as well as motivate the body in its expression in the world. Thus universal mind as an all-pervasive neutral field whirls through sensory (negative) fields and motor (positive) currents of pranas to sustain the body to experience the world through the evolutionary cycle. Positive motor currents flow outward from each chakra as the nucleus of oval fields of force. Negative sensory currents flow inward, to the chakra as the nucleus in the center of each field as a neuter point of structural balancing.
Five sensory and five motor pranas are formed from
the two currents from the entry point of the ultrasonic
core at the (third) “eye center.” 52
Dr. Stone writes:
The mind expresses itself through its five stepped-down agencies—which split into five sensory [currents] and five motor [currents]. These express themselves also as the mechanical leverage of the ten fingers, for motion and expression of skill . . . and as ten toes and energy waves flowing through them for body motion through joints and leverage . . . These waves of energy give the delicate sense of touch to the fingers . . . Such delicate patterns and finer energies waves link our mental patterns to the outside world, to experience sensations through contact with matter in its five modes of resistance. The five senses are modes of expression of the mind in matter.53
The centripetal currents of prana emanating from the chakras sustains five “sensory” pranas, to allow the perception of physical experience. The centrifugal currents predominate in structure and motor activity.54
It is important to remember that this is a sacred model—not a godless scientific model. The miracle and mystery of life is only possible because of the animating presence of the cosmic person, Sat Purusha, the Soul acting as the principal of vitality through its prana. "This vital layer of wireless rays of energy waves is the breathing and living form of energy within the gross one, just as a hand fits within the glove and animates it.”55 The Soul is the hand which animates the glove of the body.
Center of the throat
Knowledge, service, humility, discrimination
Behind the heart
Desire, aversion, ambition, hope, love,
Directed force, power, dealing with “reality,”
immortality, fame, will power,
Nourishment, bonding, emotional attachment
Security issues, grounding,
physical comforts, survival, shelter
The Primary Heart-shaped Fields57
Energy currents radiating from the core sustain chakras, whirling vortices of prana. Two currents, the centrifugal and centripetal, form the five primary heart-shaped fields of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, resonating with the five elements of Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth, respectively. These fields are in a theomorphic relationship, and in each an elemental harmonic of resonance predominates which defines the qualities of the field.
The five fields of prana currents are fundamental to the makeup of the physical body. The resonance of the Earth chakra predominates in the bodily structures, and processes that sustain boundaries. The vibration of the Water chakra sustains the life medium and the processes that create, cleanse, and renew the tissues of the body. The radiant force of Fire predominates in the organs of assimilation and in the motive force of the muscles. The resonance of Air predominates in the nervous system and the functions of circulation and respiration. "As the sensory and motor pranas commingle, they establish an energetic physiology. From the five primary chakras emerge currents of subtle electromagnetic energy that fill the space of the ‘etheric body’ with etheric energy waves. The pathways of these etheric energy waves create a ‘wireless’ circuitry that interconnects every point of this subtle form with every other point in this energetic system."58
Dr. Stone introduces the concept of oval fields. He explains:
All energy must have a circumscribed field in which to act, as a pattern design, a field of operation . . . Without such a field of limits, even the vast energies in space would loose themselves in exhaustion and to no purpose . . . The human skull has the outline and shape of an egg, a miniature planet-like shape. It is the individual microcosms where the pattern of all things to be in the body are cast or woven into the substance called brain tissue, which is the positive pole of the being. All things are represented here as patterns of mind energy and ideas, with a rhythmic wave length of their own. The whole body is but a duplication of these patterns in a more dense form and lower vibratory key of action.59As above, in the brain, so below in the body. Oval fields of force arise from and surround the chakras. All energy resonates relative to a field, cycling from source to periphery and back to source. It is important to distinguish between the centrifugal and centripetal currents and the functioning of the sensory and motor pranas. The pulsating motor oval fields sustain a medium within which energy functions. The influence of the chakras is more sensory and psychological. In Dr. Stone’s model the oval fields’ influence is more motor and functional.
In his book Polarity Therapy Dr. Stone points out in his discussion of the oval fields that he is choosing a “western viewpoint of anatomy and physiology” of “external relationships” to “avoid confusion” in presenting the functions described in the oval fields. He explains that other viewpoints, like that offered in the Ayurvedic system (which looks from within to without) describe the same functions differently.
In the model offered by Polarity Therapy the centripetal sensory currents are identified with the chakras. The centrifugal motor currents sustain “oval fields.” The chakras are ruled by the elemental archetypes. The oval fields are named for their dominant quality of motor activity or function. The head, ruled by Aries, is the Fire oval field. The eyes have the moving power of vision, without the light of vision there can be no direction for movement.
The second oval field is Ether, the neck, which rules the etheric body to provide the space for movement. Air rules the thoracic cavity as an oval field of the rhythmic movement of the lungs. The oval field at the pelvis is called the Water oval field because it is the center of the process of cleansing. Dr. Stone refers to the oval field at the navel as the Earth oval field because it is the center of the digestion and elimination functions.
We invite the reader to be aware of a Western functional viewpoint, from without to within, which Dr. Stone offers. Yet we choose the viewpoint revealed in the ancient wisdom, which looks from within outward and expresses the elegance and parsimony of universal law. In Ayurveda the nerve and brain functions are associated with the Air element, which is ruled by the all-pervasive cosmic mind, “the one polarized neuter center within from which all external forms originate and emanate.”60
Thus in the paradigm of the ancients the order of creation of the universal holomovement moves from: causal plane, to mental plane, to Ether, Air, Fire, Water, Earth. Thus the head in our model is ruled by mind and personifies the “mental plane” and the vision or identification which is the seed of our manifestation. The solar plexus, circulation, and respiration are ruled by the warmth and energy of the Fire element. The pelvis and the process of cleansing and regeneration predominate in the Water element. The colon, which rules the boundary between that which contributes to the life process and that which is eliminated, is ruled by Earth. Thus the prana currents emanating from the chakras sustain seven primary heart-shaped fields: causal at the third eye, mental at the brain, Ether at the throat, Air at the thoracic cavity, Fire at the the solar plexus, Water at the pelvis, and Earth at the colon and bones.
The electromagnetic spectrum vibrates as a unity aligned through the Golden Spiral. The cosmic octave underlies all vibration on every level of creation. Like wheels within wheels, vibration is embedded as fields within fields ruled by universal law through the harmony of the Golden Spiral. The chakra system of the body is a subsystem of the vibratory fields of nature and the universe. The chakra system is the nucleus of the energy field of the body. Its sevenfold vibratory field provides the step-down mechanism between the energy fields of nature and the cosmos and their microcosm, the physical body.
Esoteric Anatomy: The Body as Consciousness
By Bruce Burger
Chapter 8 Notes
1. Bruce Rawles, http://www.summum.org/phi.htm: Summum, 707 Genesee Avenue, Salt Lake City, UT, 84104, (801) 322-3738.
2. David Canright, http://www.math.nps.navy.mil/~dcanrig: Mathematics Department, Code MA/Ca, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943.
3. Robert Lawlor, Sacred Geometry, (London: Thames and Hudson,1982), p. 58.
4. David Tame, The Secret Power of Music, (Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1984), p. 220-221.
5. Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater, early Theosophists, studied with yogis in India and developed microclairvoyant vision. They reported the findings of this research in Occult Chemistry, (London: Theosophical Publishing,1908). (A reprint of the 1919 edition of Occult Chemistry is available from, Health Research, Mokelumne Hill, California, 95245) In this clairvoyant research, which took place between 1895 and 1933, a group of Theosophists using yogic powers developed a “Periodic Table of the Elements." From carbon to uranium, they described and diagrammed fifty-seven chemical elements—the basic constituents of matter—and developed a formula for ascertaining their atomic weight. They found ninety-nine distinct elements, including a number that were yet to be discovered. The book, Extra Sensory Perception of Quarks, (Wheaton, Illinois: Theosophical Publishing, 1980), demonstrates that the microclairvoyant research of Dr. Besant and Bishop Leadbeater had indeed been accurate and has been largely confirmed by a half-century of scientific subatomic research.
6. Based on the illustrations in Gyorgy Doczi, The Power of Limits, (Boston: Massachusetts: Shambala, 1985), p. 104.
8. Michael S. Schneider, A Beginners Guide to Constructing the Universe, (New York: Harper, 1994), p. 254.
9. Tame, The Secret Power of Music. p. 221.
10. Lawler, Sacred Geometry, p. 31.
11. Ibid., p. 229.
12. Lawler, Sacred Geometry, p. 58.
13. Ibid., p. 58.
14. Tame, The Secret Power of Music, p. 4.
15. Ibid., p. 220.
16. Stone, HB.
17. Stone, Book I, p. 18.
18. Avalon, The Serpent Power, p. 70.
19. Baba Hari Dass, Between Pleasure and Pain, (Suma, Washington: Dharma Sara Publications, 1976), p. 13.
20. Shivani Arjuna, “Balancing Vata Dosha," Energy: The Newsletter of the American Polarity Therapy Association, (Boulder, Colorado, Fall, 1996).
21. Dr. Yeshi Dhondhen and Jhampa Kelsang, Ambrosia Heart Tantra, Dharamsala : (Upper Dharmsala, India: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1977), p. 33.
22. William Hart, Vipassana Meditation, (NewYork: Harper, 1987), p. 26. Also see the clairvoyant research of Besant, et. al., cited herein, and their description of the ultimate atom as a vortex-sustaining space.
23. Stone, PN, p. 226.
24. Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanisads, p. 56.
25. Stone, Book V, p. 25.
26. Dhondhen and Kelsang, Ambrosia Heart Tantra, p. 33.
27. Doczi, The Power of Limits, p. 104.
28. Wilber, ed., The Holographic Paradigm, p. 255.
29. Stone, Book I, chart 2, Caduceus.
30. Stone, Mystic Bible, (Beas, India: Radha Soami, 1977), p. 70.
31. Stone, Book II, chart 3, P. 10.
32. "In Mahayana Buddhism this 'within which is beyond' is called tathagatagarbha, or Matrix of Reality. The word 'matrix' suggests the universal field-like nature of reality, and thus is reminiscent of the Dharmadhatu or Universal Field. In fact, the tathagatagarbha is actually identical to the Dharmadhatu as centered on the individual, just as in Hinduism the Atman is identical to Brahman as centered in the individual. But the tathagatagarbha (as well as the Atman) has a more psychological and 'personal' ring, as evidenced by the fact that it also means the Womb of Reality . . .” Wilber, Spectrum of Consciousness, p. 87.
33. C. W. Leadbeater, The Chakras, (Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing, 1973), p. 32.
34. American Polarity Therapy Association, Standards for Practice, (Boulder, Colorado: 1989), p. 8.
35. Leadbeater, The Chakras, pp. 4-5.
36. Ibid., p. 34.
37. Ibid., p. 8.
38. Chitty and Muller, Energy Exercises. This excellent chart by Mark Allison, R.P.P. is based on Stone, Book II, chart 2, 3.
39. Woodroffe, The World as Power, pp. 103-105.
40. Ibid., p. 100.
41. Ibid., p. 208.
42. Tyberg, The Language of the Gods, p. 29.
43. Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanisads, Barhad-aranyaka Upanisad, p. 243.
44. Ibid., p. 176.
45. Stone, Book III, p. 41.
46. Avalon, The Serpent Power, pp. 77-78; Brajendranath Seal, The Positive Sciences of The Ancient Hindus, (Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass,1985), p. 229.
47. Eleanora Lipton, R. P. P., Polarity Wholeness Certification Program, Atlanta, Georgia.
48. Stone, Book II, p. 62.
49. Stone, Book III, p. 41.
50. Stone, Book II., p. 72.
51. Stone, Book V, pp. 67-68.
52. Harish. Johari, Tools For Tantra, (Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1986), p. 5.
Stone, Book III, chart 1.
53. Stone, HB, p. 114-116. We have substituted currents for “senses” to clarify what appears to be a typographical error in the original.
54. Stone, Book II, chart 3.
55. Stone, Book III, p 7.
56. Johari, Tools For Tantra, p. 5.
57. Dr. Stone emphasized "oval fields" ruled by the dynamic of polarity. The heart-shaped fields of our model are made up of intersecting oval fields of centrifugal and centripetal forces.
58. APTA, Standards For Practice, p. 8.
59. Stone, Book IV, p. 51.
61. Based on illustrations in Doczi, The Power of Limits, p. 10.